Ventricular tachycardia is an abnormally fast heart rate. The abnormal heart rate originates in one of the heart's lower chambers (ventricles). It is diagnosed when there are 3 or more beats in succession originating from a ventricle. The heart beats at a rate greater than 100 beats per minute, but fewer than 200 beats per minute.
Ventricular tachycardia is considered sustained if it lasts more than 30 seconds. When this condition is sustained, the ventricles are not able to fill with enough blood for the heart to keep blood flowing properly through the body. This can result in lowered blood pressure, heart failure, and death.
Factors that may increase your chances of ventricular tachycardia:
- Coronary artery disease (CAD)
- History of heart attacks
- Heart abnormalities, such as cardiomyopathy, mitral valve prolapse, valvular heart disease, or ion channel disorders
- Diagnosis of electrical instability
- Beginning treatment for hypothyroidism
- Use of certain medications, such as antipsychotics or anti-arrhythmic drugs
- Extreme physical or emotional overstimulation
- Low oxygen levels in the blood
- Very high levels of acid in bodily fluids
- Excessive alcohol use
- Stimulants, such as caffeine or cocaine
Ventricular tachycardia may cause:
- A sensation of the heart beating very rapidly—palpitations
- Feeling lightheaded
- Feeling short of breath
- Chest discomfort
- Pale skin color
This condition can be challenging to diagnose. Ventricular tachycardia often happens in emergency situations. It must be identified and treated very quickly.
To make the diagnosis, the doctor will order tests, such as:
In an emergency situation, CPR or a defibrillator may be required.
Other treatment options may include:
- Medications to manage high blood pressure or heart rate
Surgery, such as:
- Radiofrequency ablation
- Open heart surgery
If other approaches fail, an automatic defibrillator will be inserted into the heart to deliver shocks as needed to keep the heart rate steady.
To help reduce your chances of ventricular tachycardia:
- Take medications to control heart rate and blood pressure.
- Get proper treatment for any underlying heart conditions.
- Use alcohol and caffeine in moderation.
- Take prevention steps to avoid heart disease by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising.
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how you can successfully quit.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC
- Review Date: 11/2017 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -